ROSA ALBERONI
  BOOKS BY ROSA ALBERONI


TIME EXPLORERS

One of the greatest achievements in Western History has been the discovery that time does not consist of a mechanical series of unrelated events; rather, everything that takes place in this 'world (that) is a stage' has a precise meaning rooted in history. Any exploration or trip through time means our coming to terms with historical events.
The first person to grasp this and to theorize in modern terms the linkage of events was the Italian philosopher Gianbattista Vico at the start of the 1700s. He postulated his theory on the cyclical rise and fall in human civilizations in Scienza Nuova, a work that was "reactionary and revolutionary all at once", in the words of Benedetto Croce. He was the first of humankind's "time explorers," as Rosa Giannetta Alberoni terms them, the one who opened the way for the many great writers, philosophers, sociologists, and historians who have adventured into new intellectual realms over the centuries - from Rousseau to Hegel to Marx, from Pareto to Weber to Spengler, from Croce to Bergson to Freud and to Popper. These explorers have all grappled with the question of history in their work and have amply traced the complex, contradictory, and yet magnificent story of human and social evolution from the dawn of history up to present day.
Rosa Giannetta Alberoni takes a step-by-step, epoch-by-epoch look at this marvellous course taken by human intelligence and vividly renders the words, theories, and spirit of the most important figures of each historical context. The end result is a wide-ranging historical, philosophical, and sociological critique that tells an epic story at the same time as it advances intellectually rigorous arguments. And what a story it is, this adventure of humankind. This adventure of wayfarers through time.



CONTENTS

Introduction

The Eighteenth Century
GIANBATTISTA VICO

CHAPTER ONE
The uncertain and disgraceful origins of human history

CHAPTER TWO
History, eternal ideal, and mental evolution

CHAPTER THREE
Religion, myth, and social evolution

CHAPTER FOUR
The course and recurrence of human events and Divine Providence


JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU

CHAPTER ONE
The origins of social inequality

CHAPTER TWO
The social contract or that of a totalitarian State


JANNE-ROBERT-JACQUES TURGOT e MARIE-JEAN-ANTOINE-NICOLAS CARITAT, MARCHESE DI CONDORCET

CHAPTER ONE
The progressive evolution of human thought

CHAPTER TWO
Passions, history, and human aims

CHAPTER THREE
The Rule of Reason


ADAM FERGUSON

CHAPTER ONE
Humanity and the parallel unfolding of being and action

CHAPTER TWO
Historical developments in schooling and in arts and crafts

CHAPTER THREE
The causes behind the decline of nations


The Nineteenth Century
GEORG WILHELM FRIEDRICH HEGEL

CHAPTER ONE
History and the Philosophy of History

CHAPTER TWO
History and World Spirit

CHAPTER THREE
The objectification of the spirit: the means and the materials

CHAPTER FOUR
The progressive evolution of the spirit

CHAPTER FIVE
The progressive evolution of the spirit: in the Eastern world
- China
- India
- Persia
- Egypt

CHAPTER SIX
The progressive evolution of the spirit: in Ancient Greece

CHAPTER SEVEN
The progressive evolution of the spirit: in Ancient Rome

CHAPTER EIGHT
The progressive evolution of the spirit: in the Western world


ISIDORE-AUGUSTE-FRANCOIS MARIE COMTE

CHAPTER ONE
The Theological Age

CHAPTER TWO
The Metaphysical Age

CHAPTER THREE
The Age of Positivism


KARL MARX

CHAPTER ONE
The Historical Process and the Self-Alienation of Man

CHAPTER TWO
The Bourgeoisie, the Working Class, and the Communists

CHAPTER THREE
Work and Capital


HERBERT SPENCER

CHAPTER ONE
Evolution Factors

CHAPTER TWO
Society, Family, and Institutionalized Ceremonies

CHAPTER THREE
The Institutions of Civil Society: from the political and religious to the professional and industrial


The Twentieth century
EMILE DURKHEIM

CHAPTER ONE
Ethics and the Division of Labour

CHAPTER TWO
Engineered vs. Systematic Forms of Solidarity

CHAPTER THREE
From the primeval hordes to established society

CHAPTER FOUR
Progress and Mutation


VILFREDO PARETO

CHAPTER ONE
Social systems

CHAPTER TWO
Residue, Derivation, and Ethics

CHAPTER THREE
History and Elites


MAX WEBER

CHAPTER ONE
Intra-social Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism

CHAPTER TWO
Ethics and the Origins of Capitalism

CHAPTER THREE
Religious action and the Origins of Rational Ethics

CHAPTER FOUR
Ethics, Mightiness, and Power


SIGMUND FREUD

CHAPTER ONE
The Origins of Morals and Religion

CHAPTER TWO
Moses as a Guide in Our Historical Evolution

CHAPTER THREE
The Struggle between Eros and Thanatos


HENRI BERGSON

CHAPTER ONE
The Creative and Vital Impetus of Time

CHAPTER TWO
The Evolutionary Process, Intuition, and Intelligence

CHAPTER THREE
The Roots of Morality

CHAPTER FOUR
The Roots of Religion


OSWALD SPENGLER

CHAPTER ONE
History and the Objectification of the Soul

CHAPTER TWO
Apollonian Civilizations and Faustian Civilizations

CHAPTER THREE
Morals, Civility, and Civilization

CHAPTER FOUR
Being, Alertness, and History

CHAPTER FIVE
Race, Cast, and Power

CHAPTER SIX
Politics, the Dictatorship of Money, and the Caesarian Future


BENEDETTO CROCE

CHAPTER ONE
Historical Materialism and Marxism

CHAPTER TWO
History and the Eternal Present

CHAPTER THREE
The Unpredictable Nature of History as regards Historical Subjects


KARL RAIMUND POPPER

CHAPTER ONE
The Myth of Historicism and the Inventors of Totalitarianism

CHAPTER TWO
Plato and the Tribe of Cronus

CHAPTER THREE
Hegel and Marx: False Prophets

CHAPTER FOUR
Newton's Apple and Historicism








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